Volume 577, May 2015
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||06 May 2015|
Mid-J CO shock tracing observations of infrared dark clouds. I.⋆
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik,
2 Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A’ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720, USA
3 NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada
4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada
5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192-0106, USA
6 Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
7 Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
8 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
9 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen, Germany
10 Departments of Astronomy & Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Accepted: 2 March 2015
Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are dense, molecular structures in the interstellar medium that can harbour sites of high-mass star formation. IRDCs contain supersonic turbulence, which is expected to generate shocks that locally heat pockets of gas within the clouds. We present observations of the CO J = 8–7, 9–8, and 10–9 transitions, taken with the Herschel Space Observatory, towards four dense, starless clumps within IRDCs (C1 in G028.37+00.07, F1 and F2 in G034.43+0007, and G2 in G034.77-0.55). We detect the CO J = 8–7 and 9–8 transitions towards three of the clumps (C1, F1, and F2) at intensity levels greater than expected from photodissociation region (PDR) models. The average ratio of the 8–7 to 9–8 lines is also found to be between 1.6 and 2.6 in the three clumps with detections, significantly smaller than expected from PDR models. These low line ratios and large line intensities strongly suggest that the C1, F1, and F2 clumps contain a hot gas component not accounted for by standard PDR models. Such a hot gas component could be generated by turbulence dissipating in low velocity shocks.
Key words: ISM: clouds / stars: formation / turbulence / shock waves / ISM: molecules
© ESO, 2015
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