This article has an erratum: [erratum]
Volume 577, May 2015
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||13 May 2015|
Dust variations in the diffuse interstellar medium: constraints on Milky Way dust from Planck-HFI observations
IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Université Paris-Sud 11,
Accepted: 22 March 2015
Context. The Planck-HFI all-sky survey from 353 to 857 GHz combined with the IRAS data at 100 μm (3000 GHz, IRIS version of the data) show that the dust properties vary from line of sight to line of sight in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) at high Galactic latitude (1019 ≤ NH ≤ 2.5 × 1020 H/cm2, for a sky coverage of ~12%).
Aims. These observations contradict the usual thinking of uniform dust properties, even in the most diffuse areas of the sky. Thus, our aim is to explain these variations with changes in the ISM properties and with evolution of the grain properties.
Methods. Our starting point is the latest core-mantle dust model. This model consists of small aromatic-rich carbon grains, larger amorphous carbonaceous grains with an aliphatic-rich core and an aromatic-rich mantle, and amorphous silicates (mixture of olivine and pyroxene types) with Fe/FeS nano-inclusions covered by aromatic-rich carbon mantles. We explore whether variations in the radiation field or in the gas density distribution in the diffuse ISM could explain the observed variations. The dust properties are also varied in terms of their mantle thickness, metallic nano-inclusions, carbon abundance locked in the grains, and size distributions.
Results. We show that variations in the radiation field intensity and gas density distribution cannot explain variations observed with Planck-HFI but that radiation fields harder than the standard ISRF may participate in creating part of the observed variations. We further show that variations in the mantle thickness on the grains coupled with changes in their size distributions can reproduce most of the observations. We concurrently put a limit on the mantle thickness of the silicates, which should not exceed ~ 10 to 15 nm, and find that aromatic-rich mantles are definitely needed for the carbonaceous grain population with a thickness of at least 5 to 7.5 nm. We also find that changes in the carbon cosmic abundance included in the grains could explain part of the variations in dust observations. Finally, we show that varying the composition of metallic nano-inclusions in the silicates cannot account for the variations, at the same time showing that the amount of FeS they contain cannot be > 50% by volume.
Conclusions. With small variations in the dust properties, we are able to explain most of the variations in the dust emission observed by Planck-HFI in the diffuse ISM. We also find that the small realistic changes in the dust properties that we consider almost perfectly match the anti-correlation and scatter in the observed β − T relation.
Key words: ISM: general / dust, extinction / evolution / submillimeter: ISM
© ESO, 2015
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