Volume 574, February 2015
|Number of page(s)||20|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||22 January 2015|
Evolution of angular-momentum-losing exoplanetary systems
Revisiting Darwin stability⋆
Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille,
2 INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via Santa Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
Received: 31 May 2014
Accepted: 8 November 2014
Aims. We assess the importance of tidal evolution and its interplay with magnetic braking in the population of hot-Jupiter planetary systems.
Methods. By minimizing the total mechanical energy of a given system under the constraint of stellar angular momentum loss, we rigorously find the conditions for the existence of dynamical equilibrium states. We estimate their duration, in particular when the wind torque spinning down the star is almost compensated for by the tidal torque spinning it up. We introduce dimensionless variables to characterize the tidal evolution of observed hot Jupiter systems and discuss their spin and orbital states using generalized Darwin diagrams based on our new approach.
Results. We show that their orbital properties are related to the effective temperature of their host stars. The long-term evolution of planets orbiting F- and G-type stars is significantly different owing to the combined effect of magnetic braking and tidal dissipation. The existence of a quasi-stationary state, in the case of short-period planets, can significantly delay their tidal evolution that would otherwise bring the planet to fall into its host star. Most of the planets known to orbit F-type stars are presently found to be near this stationary state, probably in a configuration not too far from what they had when their host star settled on the zero-age main sequence. Considering the importance of angular momentum loss in the early stages of stellar evolution, our results indicate that it has to be considered to properly test the migration scenarios of planetary system formation.
Key words: planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / planet-star interactions / stars: late-type / methods: analytical
Table 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2015
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