The white dwarf’s carbon fraction as a secondary parameter of Type Ia supernovae⋆
Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität
2 The Oskar Klein Centre & Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
4 Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
5 Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
6 Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611, Australia
7 ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)
Received: 1 April 2014
Accepted: 1 September 2014
Context. Binary stellar evolution calculations predict that Chandrasekhar-mass carbon/oxygen white dwarfs (WDs) show a radially varying profile for the composition with a carbon depleted core. Many recent multi-dimensional simulations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), however, assume the progenitor WD has a homogeneous chemical composition.
Aims. In this work, we explore the impact of different initial carbon profiles of the progenitor WD on the explosion phase and on synthetic observables in the Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation model. Spectra and light curves are compared to observations to judge the validity of the model.
Methods. The explosion phase is simulated using the finite volume supernova code Leafs, which is extended to treat different compositions of the progenitor WD. The synthetic observables are computed with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code Artis.
Results. Differences in binding energies of carbon and oxygen lead to a lower nuclear energy release for carbon depleted material; thus, the burning fronts that develop are weaker and the total nuclear energy release is smaller. For otherwise identical conditions, carbon depleted models produce less 56Ni. Comparing different models with similar 56Ni yields shows lower kinetic energies in the ejecta for carbon depleted models, but only small differences in velocity distributions and line velocities in spectra. The light curve width-luminosity relation (WLR) obtained for models with differing carbon depletion is roughly perpendicular to the observed WLR, hence the carbon mass fraction is probably only a secondary parameter in the family of SNe Ia.
Key words: supernovae: general / hydrodynamics / nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances / radiative transfer / binaries: close / white dwarfs
Tables 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014