Volume 570, October 2014
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||21 October 2014|
Two candidate brown dwarf companions around core helium-burning stars⋆
Dr. Karl Remeis-Observatory & ECAP, Astronomical Institute,
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg,
2 Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 Department of Statistics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, 7535 Bellville, South Africa
Received: 16 July 2014
Accepted: 15 September 2014
Hot subdwarf stars of spectral type B (sdBs) are evolved, core helium-burning objects. The formation of those objects is puzzling, because the progenitor star has to lose almost its entire hydrogen envelope in the red-giant phase. Binary interactions have been invoked, but single sdBs exist as well. We report the discovery of two close hot subdwarf binaries with small radial velocity amplitudes. Follow-up photometry revealed reflection effects originating from cool irradiated companions, but no eclipses. The lower mass limits for the companions of CPD-64°481 (0.048 M⊙) and PHL 457 (0.027 M⊙) are significantly below the stellar mass limit. Hence they could be brown dwarfs unless the inclination is unfavourable. Two very similar systems have already been reported. The probability that none of them is a brown dwarf is very small, 0.02%. Hence we provide further evidence that substellar companions with masses that low are able to eject a common envelope and form an sdB star. Furthermore, we find that the properties of the observed sample of hot subdwarfs in reflection effect binaries is consistent with a scenario where single sdBs can still be formed via common envelope events, but their low-mass substellar companions do not survive.
Key words: binaries: spectroscopic / subdwarfs / brown dwarfs
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014
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