Volume 569, September 2014
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Published online||25 September 2014|
Wave dynamics in a sunspot umbra
Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20
Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100000
2 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk, Lermontov St., 126a, 664033, Russia
3 Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, UK
4 School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701 Gyeonggi, Korea
5 Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 196140 St. Petersburg, Russia
Received: 23 April 2014
Accepted: 5 August 2014
Context. Sunspot oscillations are one of the most frequently studied wave phenomena in the solar atmosphere. Understanding the basic physical processes responsible for sunspot oscillations requires detailed information about their fine structure.
Aims. We aim to reveal the relationship between the fine horizontal and vertical structure, time evolution, and the fine spectral structure of oscillations in a sunspot umbra.
Methods. The high spatial and time resolution data obtained with SDO/AIA for the sunspot in active region NOAA 11131 on 08 December 2010 were analysed with the time-distance plot technique and the pixelised wavelet filtering method. Different levels of the sunspot atmosphere were studied from the temperature minimum to the corona.
Results. Oscillations in the 3 min band dominate in the umbra. The integrated spectrum of umbral oscillations contains distinct narrowband peaks at 1.9 min, 2.3 min, and 2.8 min. The power significantly varies in time, forming distinct 12–20 min oscillation trains. The oscillation power distribution over the sunspot in the horizontal plane reveals that the enhancements of the oscillation amplitude, or wave fronts, have a distinct structure consisting of an evolving two-armed spiral and a stationary circular patch at the spiral origin, situated near the umbra centre. This structure is seen from the temperature minimum at 1700 Å to the 1.6 MK corona at 193 Å. In time, the spiral rotates anti-clockwise. The wave front spirality is most pronounced during the maximum amplitude phases of the oscillations, and in the bandpasses where umbral oscillations have the highest power, 304 Å and 171 Å. In the low-amplitude phases the spiral breaks into arc-shaped patches. The 2D cross-correlation function shows that the oscillations at higher atmospheric levels occur later than at lower layers. The phase speed is estimated to be about 100 km s-1. The fine spectral analysis shows that the central patch corresponds to the high-frequency oscillations, while the spiral arms highlight the lower-frequency oscillations in the 3 min band.
Conclusions. The vertical and horizontal radial structure of the oscillations is consistent with the model that interprets umbral oscillations as slow magnetoacoustic waves filtered by the atmospheric temperature non-uniformity in the presence of the magnetic field inclination from the vertical. The mechanism for the polar-angle structure of the oscillations, in particular the spirality of the wave fronts, needs to be revealed.
Key words: sunspots / Sun: oscillations / Sun: atmosphere
© ESO, 2014
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