Volume 566, June 2014
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Published online||19 June 2014|
1 Dpt. Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (València), Spain
2 Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Observatorievgen 90, 43992 Onsala, Sweden
3 Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
4 ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-St. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
5 Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna (València), Spain
6 Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
7 Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Received: 17 December 2013
Accepted: 22 April 2014
Aims. The main goal of this research is to determine the angular size and the atmospheric structures of cool giant stars (ϵ Oct, β Peg, NU Pav, ψ Peg, and γ Hya) and to compare them with hydrostatic stellar model atmospheres, to estimate the fundamental parameters, and to obtain a better understanding of the circumstellar environment.
Methods. We conducted spectro-interferometric observations of ϵ Oct, β Peg, NU Pav, and ψ Peg in the near-infrared K band (2.13−2.47 μm), and γ Hya (1.9−2.47 μm) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (~1500). To obtain the fundamental parameters, we compared our data with hydrostatic atmosphere models (PHOENIX).
Results. We estimated the Rosseland angular diameters of ϵ Oct, β Peg, NU Pav, ψ Peg, and γ Hya to be 11.66±1.50 mas, 16.87±1.00 mas, 13.03±1.75 mas, 6.31±0.35 mas, and 3.78±0.65 mas, respectively. Together with distances and bolometric fluxes (obtained from the literature), we estimated radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities of our targets. In the β Peg visibility, we observed a molecular layer of CO with a size similar to that modeled with PHOENIX. However, there is an additional slope in absorption starting around 2.3 μm. This slope is possibly due to a shell of H2O that is not modeled with PHOENIX (the size of the layer increases to about 5% with respect to the near-continuum level). The visibility of ψ Peg shows a low increase in the CO bands, compatible with the modeling of the PHOENIX model. The visibility data of ϵ Oct, NU Pav, and γ Hya show no increase in molecular bands.
Conclusions. The spectra and visibilities predicted by the PHOENIX atmospheres agree with the spectra and the visibilities observed in our stars (except for β Peg). This indicates that the opacity of the molecular bands is adequately included in the model, and the atmospheres of our targets have an extension similar to the modeled atmospheres. The atmosphere of β Peg is more extended than that predicted by the model. The role of pulsations, if relevant in other cases and unmodeled by PHOENIX, therefore seems negligible for the atmospheric structures of our sample. The targets are located close to the red limits of the evolutionary tracks of the STAREVOL model, corresponding to masses between 1 M⊙ and 3 M⊙. The STAREVOL model fits the position of our stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram better than the Ekström model does. STAREVOL includes thermohaline mixing, unlike the Ekström model, and complements the latter for intermediate-mass stars.
Key words: stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: atmospheres / stars: individual:ϵOct / Hertzsprung-Russell and C-M diagrams / stars: individual: βPeg
Based on observations made with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory under programme ID 089.D-0801.
Figures 2–4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014
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