Orbit and properties of the massive X-ray binary BD +60 73=IGR J00370+6122⋆
1 European Southern Observatories, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
2 Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto M5S 3H4, Canada
3 Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem PA 18015, USA
Received: 24 September 2013
Accepted: 1 January 2014
Context. High-energy X-rays generated in massive binary systems can arise from several different mechanisms. Constraints on the orbital parameters of these systems are therefore necessary to properly understand and interpret the X-ray phenomena.
Aims. In this study we aim to determine a spectroscopic orbit for the high-mass X-ray binary system BD +60 73=IGR J00370+6122, to infer the properties of the optical and compact companion, and to interpret the characteristics of the X-ray light curve within the context of our findings.
Methods. We acquired 123 spectroscopic observations with the David Dunlap Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory telescopes in the optical domain. Using a cross-correlation technique, we measured the radial velocity of each of these spectra relative to the heliocentric rest-frame. An orbital solution was obtained from the resulting radial velocity measurements. Spectra of several spectral standards were also acquired to reassess the spectral classification of the optical companion.
Results. The best-fit orbital parameters suggest an eccentricity of e = 0.48+0.02-0.03 and a mass-function of f(M) = 0.009 ± 0.002, lending further support to the assumption that the companion is a low-mass compact star. We find that the X-ray maximum occurs just after the time of periastron passage, but before the time of superior conjunction when the optical companion could eclipse the compact companion. The spectrum of the optical companion is best matched by the B1Ib spectral standard HD 24398, which reaffirms the original classification.
Conclusions. The mass-function combined with a plausible range of possible masses for a neutron star companion yields primary masses within the range expected for the spectral type of BD +60 73 for high orbital inclinations. The compact companion cannot be a black hole unless the supergiant has an exceptionally high mass for its B1Ib spectral type or if the inclination of its orbit is very low. The X-ray timing and characteristics can potentially be explained by accretion variations on the compact object; but this would require the companion to be a magnetar.
Key words: techniques: radial velocities / techniques: spectroscopic / ephemerides / stars: magnetars / binaries: general / stars: individual: BD+60 73
Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014