Abundances and possible diffusion of elements in M 67 stars⋆
Department of Physics and AstronomyUppsala Astronomical
2 Nordita, Roslagstullsbacken 23, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Received: 13 September 2013
Accepted: 25 November 2013
Context. The rich open cluster M 67 is known to have a chemical composition close to solar and an age of about 3.5–4.8 Gyr. It offers an important opportunity to check and develop our understanding of the physics and the evolution of solar-type stars.
Aims. We present a spectroscopic study at high resolution, R ≈ 50 000, of 14 stars located on the main sequence, at the turn-off point, and on the early subgiant branch in the cluster in order to investigate its detailed chemical composition, for comparison with the Sun and solar twins in the solar neighbourhood, and to explore selective atomic diffusion of chemical elements as predicted by stellar-structure theory.
Methods. We have obtained VLT/FLAMES-UVES spectra and analysed these strictly differentially in order to explore chemical-abundance similarities and differences between the M 67 stars and the Sun and among the M 67 stars themselves.
Results. Individual abundances of 19 different chemical elements are obtained for the stars. They are found to agree very well with solar abundances, with abundance ratios closer to solar than those of most solar twins in the solar neighbourhood. An exception is Li, which shows considerable scatter among the cluster stars. There is a tendency for the cluster-star abundances to be more depleted than the abundances in the field stars in correlation with the condensation temperature of the elements, a tendency also found earlier for the Sun. Moreover, the heavy-element abundances are found to be reduced in the hotter stars and dwarfs by typically ≤0.05 dex, as compared to the abundances of the subgiants.
Conclusions. The results support the hypothesis that the gas of the proto-cluster was depleted by formation and cleansing of dust before the stars formed. They also add support to the proposal that the Sun was formed in a dense stellar environment. Moreover, the observed minor reductions of heavy elements, relative to our standard star M 67-1194 and the subgiants, in the atmospheres of dwarfs and turn-off point stars seem to suggest that diffusion processes are at work in these stars, although the evidence is not compelling. Based on theoretical models, the diffusion-corrected initial metallicity of M 67 is estimated to be [Fe/H] = +0.06.
Key words: stars: atmospheres / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / techniques: spectroscopic / open clusters and associations: individual: M 67 / methods: observational
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014