Revealing the cold dust in low-metallicity environments
I. Photometry analysis of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Herschel⋆
Laboratoire AIM, CEA, Université Paris Sud XI,
IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bât.
2 UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
3 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
4 School of Physics & Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK
5 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
6 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent, Belgium
7 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
8 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille − LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille & CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13, France
9 Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
10 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
11 Instituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
12 Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, 7535 Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa
13 Department of Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada
Accepted: 18 June 2013
Context. We present new photometric data from our Herschel guaranteed time key programme, the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), dedicated to the observation of the gas and dust in low-metallicity environments. A total of 48 dwarf galaxies were observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard the Herschel Space Observatory at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm.
Aims. The goal of this paper is to provide reliable far-infrared (FIR) photometry for the DGS sample and to analyse the FIR/submillimetre (submm) behaviour of the DGS galaxies. We focus on a systematic comparison of the derived FIR properties (FIR luminosity, LFIR, dust mass, Mdust, dust temperature, T, emissivity index, β) with more metal-rich galaxies and investigate the detection of a potential submm excess.
Methods. The data reduction method is adapted for each galaxy in order to derive the most reliable photometry from the final maps. The derived PACS flux densities are compared with the Spitzer MIPS 70 and 160 μm bands. We use colour−colour diagrams to analyse the FIR/submm behaviour of the DGS galaxies and modified blackbody fitting procedures to determine their dust properties. To study the variation in these dust properties with metallicity, we also include galaxies from the Herschel KINGFISH sample, which contains more metal-rich environments, totalling 109 galaxies.
Results. The location of the DGS galaxies on Herschel colour−colour diagrams highlights the differences in dust grain properties and/or global environments of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. The dust in DGS galaxies is generally warmer than in KINGFISH galaxies (TDGS ~ 32 K and TKINGFISH ~ 23 K). The emissivity index, β, is ~1.7 in the DGS, however metallicity does not make a strong effect on β. The proportion of dust mass relative to stellar mass is lower in low-metallicity galaxies: Mdust/Mstar ~ 0.02% for the DGS versus 0.1% for KINGFISH. However, per unit dust mass, dwarf galaxies emit about six times more in the FIR/submm than higher metallicity galaxies. Out of the 22 DGS galaxies detected at 500 μm, about 41% present an excess in the submm beyond the explanation of our dust SED model, and this excess can go up to 150% above the prediction from the model. The excess mainly appears in lower metallicity galaxies (12 + log(O/H) ≲ 8.3), and the strongest excesses are detected in the most metal-poor galaxies. However, we also stress the need for observations longwards of the Herschel wavelengths to detect any submm excess appearing beyond 500 μm.
Key words: galaxies: ISM / galaxies: dwarf / galaxies: photometry / infrared: galaxies / infrared: ISM / dust, extinction
Tables 1−4 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013