Volume 557, September 2013
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Published online||24 September 2013|
Superbubble evolution in disk galaxies
I. Study of blow-out by analytical models
1 Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
2 Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Received: 8 February 2013
Accepted: 1 August 2013
Context. Galactic winds are a common phenomenon in starburst galaxies in the local universe as well as at higher redshifts. Their sources are superbubbles driven by sequential supernova explosions in star forming regions, which carve out large holes in the interstellar medium and eject hot, metal enriched gas into the halo and to the galactic neighborhood.
Aims. We investigate the evolution of superbubbles in exponentially stratified disks. We present advanced analytical models for the expansion of such bubbles and calculate their evolution in space and time. With these models one can derive the energy input that is needed for blow-out of superbubbles into the halo and derive the break-up of the shell, since Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities develop soon after a bubble starts to accelerate into the halo.
Methods. The approximation of Kompaneets is modified in order to calculate velocity and acceleration of a bubble analytically. Our new model differs from earlier ones, because it presents for the first time an analytical calculation for the expansion of superbubbles in an exponential density distribution driven by a time-dependent energy input rate. The time-sequence of supernova explosions of OB-stars is modeled using their main sequence lifetime and an initial mass function.
Results. We calculate the morphology and kinematics of superbubbles powered by three different kinds of energy input and we derive the energy input required for blow-out as a function of the density and the scale height of the ambient interstellar medium. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability timescale in the shell is calculated in order to estimate when the shell starts to fragment and finally breaks up. Analytical models are a very efficient tool for comparison to observations, like e.g. the Local Bubble and the W4 bubble discussed in this paper, and also give insight into the dynamics of superbubble evolution.
Key words: ISM: bubbles / ISM: supernova remnants / galaxies: ISM / galaxies: halos
© ESO, 2013
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