Shocks in dense clouds
IV. Effects of grain-grain processing on molecular line emission⋆
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn,
Auf dem Hügel 71,
2 Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), UMR 8617, CNRS, Bâtiment 121, Université Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay, France
3 LERMA (UMR 8112 du CNRS), Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
4 Physics Department, The University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Accepted: 19 June 2013
Context. Grain-grain processing has been shown to be an indispensable ingredient of shock modelling in high density environments. For densities higher than ~105 cm-3, shattering becomes a self-enhanced process that imposes severe chemical and dynamical consequences on the shock characteristics. Shattering is accompanied by the vaporization of grains, which can, in addition to sputtering, directly release SiO to the gas phase. Given that SiO rotational line radiation is used as a major tracer of shocks in dense clouds, it is crucial to understand the influence of vaporization on SiO line emission.
Aims. We extend our study of the impact of grain-grain processing on C-type shocks in dense clouds. Various values of the magnetic field are explored. We study the corresponding consequences for molecular line emission and, in particular, investigate the influence of shattering and related vaporization on the rotational line emission of SiO.
Methods. We have developed a recipe for implementing the effects of shattering and vaporization into a 2-fluid shock model, resulting in a reduction of computation time by a factor ~100 compared to a multi-fluid modelling approach. This implementation was combined with an LVG-based modelling of molecular line radiation transport. Using this combined model we calculated grids of shock models to explore the consequences of different dust-processing scenarios.
Results. Grain-grain processing is shown to have a strong influence on C-type shocks for a broad range of magnetic fields: the shocks become hotter and thinner. The reduction in column density of shocked gas lowers the intensity of molecular lines, at the same time as higher peak temperatures increase the intensity of highly excited transitions compared to shocks without grain-grain processing. For OH the net effect is an increase in line intensities, while for CO and H2O it is the contrary. The intensity of H2 emission is decreased in low transitions and increased for highly excited lines. For all molecules, the highly excited lines become sensitive to the value of the magnetic field. Although vaporization increases the intensity of SiO rotational lines, this effect is weakened by the reduced shock width. The release of SiO early in the hot shock changes the excitation characteristics of SiO radiation, although it does not yield an increase in width for the line profiles. To significantly increase the intensity and width of SiO rotational lines, SiO needs to be present in grain mantles.
Key words: shock waves / magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) / dust, extinction / ISM: clouds / ISM: jets and outflows / ISM: kinematics and dynamics
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© ESO, 2013