Improved angular momentum evolution model for solar-like stars⋆
UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et
d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, 38041
Accepted: 5 June 2013
Context. Understanding the origin and evolution of stellar angular momentum is one of the major challenges of stellar physics.
Aims. We present new models for the rotational evolution of solar-like stars between 1 Myr and 10 Gyr with the aim of reproducing the distributions of rotational periods observed for star forming regions and young open clusters within this age range.
Methods. The models include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetized stellar winds and specific dynamo and mass-loss prescriptions are adopted to tie angular momentum loss to angular velocity. The models additionally assume constant angular velocity during the disk accretion phase and allow for decoupling between the radiative core and the convective envelope as soon as the former develops.
Results. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow, median, and fast rotators with initial periods of 10, 7, and 1.4 d, respectively. The models reproduce reasonably well the rotational behavior of solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 4.5 Gyr, including pre-main sequence (PMS) to zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) spin up, prompt ZAMS spin down, and the early-main sequence (MS) convergence of surface rotation rates. We find the model parameters accounting for the slow and median rotators are very similar to each other, with a disk lifetime of 5 Myr and a core-envelope coupling timescale of 28−30 Myr. In contrast, fast rotators have both shorter disk lifetimes (2.5 Myr) and core-envelope coupling timescales (12 Myr). We show that a large amount of angular momentum is hidden in the radiative core for as long as 1 Gyr in these models and we discuss the implications for internal differential rotation and lithium depletion. We emphasize that these results are highly dependent on the adopted braking law. We also report a tentative correlation between the initial rotational period and disk lifetime, which suggests that protostellar spin down by massive disks in the embedded phase is at the origin of the initial dispersion of rotation rates in young stars.
Conclusions. We conclude that this class of semi-empirical models successfully grasp the main trends of the rotational behavior of solar-type stars as they evolve and make specific predictions that may serve as a guide for further development.
Key words: stars: solar-type / stars: evolution / stars: rotation / stars: mass-loss / stars: magnetic field
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013