The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey
1 INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
2 School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK
3 Sterrenkunding Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent, Belgium
4 UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
5 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
6 Universitá di Milano – Bicocca, Piazza delle Scienze 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
7 CAAUL, Observatòrio Astronòmico de Lisboa, Tapada de Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa, Portugal
8 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Gießenbachstraße, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching, Germany
9 Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications & Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece
Received: 12 October 2012
Accepted: 10 January 2013
Aims. We study the dust content of a large optical input sample of 910 early-type galaxies (ETG) in the Virgo cluster, also extending to the dwarf ETG, and examine the results in relation to those on the other cold ISM components.
Methods. We have searched for far-infrared emission in all galaxies in the input sample using the 250 μm image of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). This image covers a large fraction of the cluster with an area of ~55 square degrees. For the detected ETG we measured fluxes in five bands from 100 to 500 μm, and estimated the dust mass and temperature with modified black-body fits.
Results. Dust is detected above the completeness limit of 25.4 mJy at 250 μm in 46 ETG, 43 of which are in the optically complete part of the input sample. In addition, dust is present at fainter levels in another six ETG. We detect dust in the four ETG with synchrotron emission, including M 87. Dust appears to be much more concentrated than stars and more luminous ETG have higher dust temperatures. Considering only the optically complete input sample and correcting for the contamination by background galaxies, dust detection rates down to the 25.4 mJy limit are 17% for ellipticals, about 40% for lenticulars (S0 + S0a), and around 3% for dwarf ETG. Dust mass does not correlate clearly with stellar mass and is often much greater than expected for a passive galaxy in a closed-box model. The dust-to-stars mass ratio anticorrelates with galaxy luminosity, and for some dwarf ETG reaches values as high as for dusty late-type galaxies. In the Virgo cluster slow rotators appear more likely to contain dust than fast ones. Comparing the dust results with those on Hi there are only eight ETG detected both in dust and in Hi in the HeViCS area; 39 have dust but only an upper limit on Hi, and eight have Hi but only an upper limit on dust. The locations of these galaxies in the cluster are different, with the dusty ETG concentrated in the densest regions, while the Hi rich ETG are at the periphery.
Key words: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: ISM / dust, extinction
Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
Table A.1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013