1 Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. M-108, km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain
2 Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Apdo. 112, 28803 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
3 I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
4 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
5 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31028 Toulouse, France
6 CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
7 LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
8 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
9 Department of Physics, PO Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
10 Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Local 20, 18012 Granada, Spain
11 Observatoire de Paris, LUTH and Université Denis Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
Received: 18 November 2011
Accepted: 6 June 2012
Context. Mon R2, at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultracompact H ii region (UCH ii) where the associated photon-dominated region (PDR) can be resolved with Herschel. Owing to its brightness and proximity, it is one of the best-suited sources for investigating the chemistry and physics of highly UV-irradiated PDRs.
Aims. Our goal is to estimate the abundance of H2O and NH3 in this region and investigate their origin.
Methods. We present new observations ([C ii], 12CO, 13CO, C18O, o-H2O, p-H2O, o-HO and o-NH3) obtained with the HIFI instrument onboard Herschel and the IRAM-30 m telescope. We investigated the physical conditions in which these lines arise by analyzing their velocity structure and spatial variations. Using a large velocity gradient approach, we modeled the line intensities and derived an average abundance of H2O and NH3 across the region. Finally, we modeled the line profiles with a non-local radiative transfer model and compared these results with the abundance predicted by the Meudon PDR code.
Results. The variations of the line profiles and intensities indicate complex geometrical and kinematical patterns. In several tracers ([C ii], CO 9 → 8 and H2O) the line profiles vary significantly with position and have broader line widths toward the H ii region. The H2O lines present strong self-absorption at the ambient velocity and emission in high-velocity wings toward the H ii region. The emission in the o-HO ground state line reaches its maximum value around the H ii region, has smaller linewidths and peaks at the velocity of the ambient cloud. Its spatial distribution shows that the o-HO emission arises in the PDR surrounding the H ii region. By modeling the o-HO emission and assuming the standard [16O] / [18O] = 500, we derive a mean abundance of o-H2O of ~10-8 relative to H2. The ortho-H2O abundance, however, is larger (~1 × 10-7) in the high-velocity wings detected toward the H ii region. Possible explanations for this larger abundance include an expanding hot PDR and/or an outflow. Ammonia seems to be present only in the envelope of the core with an average abundance of ~2 × 10-9 relative to H2.
Conclusions. The Meudon PDR code, which includes only gas-phase chemical networks, can account for the measured water abundance in the high velocity gas as long as we assume that it originates from a ≲ 1 mag hot expanding layer of the PDR, i.e. that the outflow has only a minor contribution to this emission. To explain the water and ammonia abundances in the rest of the cloud, the molecular freeze out and grain surface chemistry would need to be included.
Key words: ISM: structure / ISM: molecules / HII regions / ISM: individual objects: Mon R2 / photon-dominated region (PDR) / submillimeter: ISM
Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
© ESO, 2012