This article has an erratum: [https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118717e]
Volume 542, June 2012
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||15 June 2012|
New ultracool subdwarfs identified in large-scale surveys using Virtual Observatory tools⋆,⋆⋆
I. UKIDSS LAS DR5 vs. SDSS DR7
1 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Calle Vía Láctea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
2 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
4 Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Departamento de Astrofísica, PO Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
5 Spanish Virtual Observatory
Received: 22 December 2011
Accepted: 16 April 2012
Aims. The aim of the project is to improve our knowledge of the low-mass and low-metallicity population to investigate the influence of metallicity on the stellar (and substellar) mass function.
Methods. We present the results of a photometric and proper motion search aimed at discovering ultracool subdwarfs in large-scale surveys. We employed and combined the Fifth Data Release (DR5) of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 complemented with ancillary data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), the DEep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS) and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS).
Results. The SDSS DR7 vs. UKIDSS LAS DR5 search returned a total of 32 ultracool subdwarf candidates, only two of which are recognised as a subdwarf in the literature. Twenty-seven candidates, including the two known ones, were followed-up spectroscopically in the optical between 600 and 1000 nm, thus covering strong spectral features indicative of low metallicity (e.g., CaH), 21 with the Very Large Telescope, one with the Nordic Optical Telescope, and five were extracted from the Sloan spectroscopic database to assess (or refute) their low-metal content. We confirm 20 candidates as subdwarfs, extreme subdwarfs, or ultra-subdwarfs with spectral types later than M5; this represents a success rate of ≥ 60%. Among those 20 new subdwarfs, we identify two early-L subdwarfs that are very likely located within 100 pc, which we propose as templates for future searches because they are the first examples of their subclass. Another seven sources are solar-metallicity M dwarfs with spectral types between M4 and M7 without Hα emission, suggesting that they are old M dwarfs. The remaining five candidates do not have spectroscopic follow-up yet; only one remains as a bona-fide ultracool subdwarf after revision of their proper motions. We assigned spectral types based on the current classification schemes and, when possible, we measured their radial velocities. Using the limited number of subdwarfs with trigonometric parallaxes, we estimated distances ranging from ~95 to ~600 pc for the new subdwarfs. We provide mid-infrared photometry extracted from the WISE satellite databases for two subdwarfs and discuss their colours. Finally, we estimate a lower limit of the surface density of ultracool subdwarfs about 5000–5700 times lower than that of solar-metallicity late-M dwarfs.
Key words: subdwarfs / techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic / infrared: stars / surveys / virtual observatory tools
Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-0928A.
© ESO, 2012
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