A hydrodynamical model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars⋆
1 Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium
2 Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium
3 Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
4 Laboratoire Univers et Particules (LUPM) Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, CC72, place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Received: 7 March 2012
Accepted: 10 April 2012
Context. Numerical models of the wind-blown bubble of massive stars usually only account for the wind of a single star. However, since massive stars are usually formed in clusters, it would be more realistic to follow the evolution of a bubble created by several stars.
Aims. We develop a two-dimensional (2D) model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars, a 40 M⊙ star and a 25 M⊙ star, and follow its evolution. The stars are separated by approximately 16 pc and surrounded by a cold medium with a density of 20 particles per cm3.
Methods. We use the MPI-AMRVAC hydrodynamics code to solve the conservation equations of hydrodynamics on a 2D cylindrical grid using time-dependent models for the wind parameters of the two stars. At the end of the stellar evolution (4.5 and 7.0 million years for the 40 and 25 M⊙ stars, respectively), we simulate the supernova explosion of each star.
Results. Each star initially creates its own bubble. However, as the bubbles expand they merge, creating a combined, aspherical bubble. The combined bubble evolves over time, influenced by the stellar winds and supernova explosions.
Conclusions. The evolution of a wind-blown bubble created by two stars deviates from that of the bubbles around single stars. In particular, once one of the stars has exploded, the bubble is too large for the wind of the remaining star to maintain and the outer shell starts to disintegrate. The lack of thermal pressure inside the bubble also changes the behavior of circumstellar features close to the remaining star. The supernovae are contained inside the bubble, which reflects part of the energy back into the circumstellar medium.
Key words: hydrodynamics / circumstellar matter / stars: winds, outflows / supernovae: general / ISM: bubbles / ISM: supernova remnants
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© ESO, 2012