Volume 537, January 2012
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||09 January 2012|
The evolution of the star formation activity per halo mass up to redshift ~1.6 as seen by Herschel⋆
Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE),
Postfach 1312, 85741
2 INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
3 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
5 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
6 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
7 Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691 Madrid, Spain
8 ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
9 Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, 91125, USA
10 Department of Astronomy, 249-17 Caltech, 1201 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, 91125, USA
11 Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
12 National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
13 NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
14 Institute for Astronomy 2680, Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1897, USA
15 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
16 George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Received: 30 August 2011
Accepted: 13 October 2011
Aims. Star formation in massive galaxies is quenched at some point during hierarchical mass assembly. To understand where and when the quenching processes takes place, we study the evolution of the total star formation rate per unit total halo mass (Σ(SFR)/M) in three different mass scales: low mass halos (field galaxies), groups, and clusters, up to a redshift z ≈ 1.6.
Methods. We use deep far-infrared PACS data at 100 and 160 μm to accurately estimate the total star formation rate of the luminous infrared galaxy population of 9 clusters with mass ~1015 M⊙, and 9 groups/poor clusters with mass ~5 × 1013 M⊙. Estimates of the field Σ(SFR)/M are derived from the literature, by dividing the star formation rate density by the mean comoving matter density of the universe.
Results. The field Σ(SFR)/M increases with redshift up to z ~ 1 and it is constant thereafter. The evolution of the Σ(SFR)/M – z relation in galaxy systems is much faster than in the field. Up to redshift z ~ 0.2, the field has a higher Σ(SFR)/M than galaxy groups and galaxy clusters. At higher redshifts, galaxy groups and the field have similar Σ(SFR)/M, while massive clusters have significantly lower Σ(SFR)/M than both groups and the field. There is a hint of a reversal of the SFR activity vs. environment at z ~ 1.6, where the group Σ(SFR)/M lies above the field Σ(SFR)/M − z relation. We discuss possible interpretations of our results in terms of the processes of downsizing, and star-formation quenching.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: evolution / galaxies: high-redshift
© ESO, 2012
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