Parametrized 3D models of neutrino-driven supernova explosions
Neutrino emission asymmetries and gravitational-wave signals
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik,
Accepted: 22 October 2011
Time-dependent and direction-dependent neutrino and gravitational-wave (GW) signatures are presented for a set of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic models of parametrized, neutrino-driven supernova explosions of non-rotating 15 and 20 M⊙ stars. We employed an approximate treatment of neutrino transport based on a gray spectral description and a ray-by-ray treatment of multi-dimensional effects. Owing to the excision of the high-density core of the proto-neutron star (PNS) and the use of an axis-free (Yin-Yang) overset grid, the models can be followed from the post-bounce accretion phase through the onset of the explosion into more than one second of the early cooling evolution of the PNS without imposing any symmetry restrictions and covering a full sphere. Gravitational waves and neutrino emission exhibit the generic time-dependent features already known from 2D (axi-symmetric) models. Violent non-radial hydrodynamic mass motions in the accretion layer and their interaction with the outer layers of the proto-neutron star together with anisotropic neutrino emission give rise to a GW signal with an amplitude of ~5−20 cm in the frequency range of 100−500 Hz. The GW emission from mass motions usually reaches a maximum before the explosion sets in. After the onset of the explosion the GW signal exhibits a low-frequency modulation, in some cases describing a quasi-monotonic growth, associated with the non-spherical expansion of the explosion shock wave and the large-scale anisotropy of the escaping neutrino flow. Variations of the mass-quadrupole moment caused by convective activity inside the nascent neutron star add a high-frequency component to the GW signal during the post-explosion phase. The GW signals exhibit strong variability between the two polarizations, different explosion simulations and different observer directions, and besides common basic features do not possess any template character. The neutrino emission properties (fluxes and effective spectral temperatures) show fluctuations over the neutron star surface on spatial and temporal scales that reflect the different types of non-spherical mass motions in the supernova core, i.e., post-shock overturn flows and proto-neutron star convection. However, because very prominent, quasi-periodic sloshing motions of the shock caused by the standing accretion-shock instability are absent and the emission from different surface areas facing an observer adds up incoherently, the modulation amplitudes of the measurable neutrino luminosities and mean energies are significantly lower than predicted by 2D simulations.
Key words: stars: neutron / hydrodynamics / neutrinos / stars: massive / supernovae: general / gravitational waves
© ESO, 2012