Volume 534, October 2011
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||04 October 2011|
The outcome of protoplanetary dust growth: pebbles, boulders, or planetesimals?
III. Sedimentation driven coagulation inside the snowline
Max-Planck-Institute für Astronomie,
2 Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Received: 14 January 2011
Accepted: 25 July 2011
Context. The evolution of dust particles in protoplanetary disks determines many observable and structural properties of the disk, such as the spectral energy distribution (SED), appearance of disks, temperature profile, and chemistry. Dust coagulation is also the first step towards planet formation.
Aims. We investigate dust growth due to settling in a 1D vertical column of a disk. It is known from the ten micron feature in disk SEDs, that small micron-sized grains are present at the disk atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the disk. We hope to explain such questions as what process can keep the disk atmospheres dusty for the lifetime of the disk and how the particle properties change as a function of height above the midplane.
Methods. We used a Monte Carlo code to follow the mass and porosity evolution of the particles in time. We gradually build up the complexity of the models by considering the effects of porosity, different collision models, turbulence, and different gas models, respectively. This way we can distinguish the effects of these physical processes on particle growth and motion. The collision model used is based on laboratory experiments performed on dust aggregates. As the experiments cannot cover all possible collision scenarios, the largest uncertainty of our model comes from the necessary extrapolations we had to perform. We simultaneously solved for the particle growth and motion. Particles can move vertically due to settling and turbulent mixing. We assumed that the vertical profile of the gas density is fixed in time and that only the solid component evolves.
Results. We find that the used collision model strongly influences the masses and sizes of the particles. The laboratory-experiment based collision model greatly reduces the particle sizes compared to models that assume sticking at all collision velocities. We find that a turbulence parameter of α = 10-2 is needed to keep the dust atmospheres dusty, but such strong turbulence can produce only small particles at the midplane, which does not favor for planetesimal formation models. We also see that the particles are larger at the midplane and smaller at the upper layers of the disk. At 3–4 pressure-scale heights, micron-sized particles are produced. These particle sizes are needed to explain the ten micron feature of disk SEDs. Turbulence may therefore help keep small dust particles in the disk atmosphere.
Key words: methods: numerical / planets and satellites: formation / protoplanetary disks
© ESO, 2011
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