Exploring the galaxy cluster-group transition regime at high redshifts
Physical properties of two newly detected z > 1 systems⋆
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE),
2 Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
3 European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESA, Madrid, Spain
4 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile
6 CEA Saclay, Service d’Astrophysique, L’Orme des Merisiers, Bât. 709, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Accepted: 13 April 2011
Context. Multi-wavelength surveys for clusters of galaxies are opening a window on the elusive high-redshift (z > 1) cluster population. Well controlled statistical samples of distant clusters will enable us to answer questions about their cosmological context, early assembly phases and the thermodynamical evolution of the intracluster medium.
Aims. We report on the detection of two z > 1 systems, XMMU J0302.2-0001 and XMMU J1532.2-0836, as part of the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) sample. We investigate the nature of the sources, measure their spectroscopic redshift and determine their basic physical parameters.
Methods. The results of the present paper are based on the analysis of XMM-Newton archival data, optical/near-infrared imaging and deep optical follow-up spectroscopy of the clusters.
Results. We confirm the X-ray source XMMU J0302.2-0001 as a gravitationally bound, bona fide cluster of galaxies at spectroscopic redshift z = 1.185. We estimate its M500 mass to (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1014 M⊙ from its measured X-ray luminosity. This ranks the cluster among intermediate mass system. In the case of XMMU J1532.2-0836 we find the X-ray detection to be coincident with a dynamically bound system of galaxies at z = 1.358. Optical spectroscopy reveals the presence of a central active galactic nucleus, which can be a dominant source of the detected X-ray emission from this system. We provide upper limits of X-ray parameters for the system and discuss cluster identification challenges in the high-redshift low-mass cluster regime. A third, intermediate redshift (z = 0.647) cluster, XMMU J0302.1-0000, is serendipitously detected in the same field as XMMU J0302.2-0001. We provide its analysis as well.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / galaxies: evolution
Based on observations obtained with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 080.A-0659 and 081.A-0312, observations collected at the Centro Astrnómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, Spain operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). X-ray observations were obtained by XMM-Newton.
© ESO, 2011