Volume 526, February 2011
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||11 January 2011|
ESO – European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748
Garching bei München,
2 Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3 Lund Observatory, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden
4 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
5 Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
6 ZAH – Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 5 November 2010
Context. Precise analyses of stellar radial velocities is able to reveal intrinsic causes of the wavelength shifts of spectral lines (other than Doppler shifts due to radial motion), such as gravitational redshifts and convective blueshifts.
Aims. Gravitational redshifts in solar-type main-sequence stars are expected to be some 500 m s-1 greater than those in giants. We search for this difference in redshifts among groups of open-cluster stars that share the same average space motion and thus have the same average Doppler shift.
Methods. We observed 144 main-sequence stars and cool giants in the M 67 open cluster using the ESO FEROS spectrograph and obtained radial velocities by means of cross-correlation with a spectral template. Binaries and doubtful members were not analyzed, and average spectra were created for different classes of stars.
Results. The M 67 dwarf and giant radial-velocity distributions are each well represented by Gaussian functions, which share the same apparent average radial velocity to within ≃100 m s-1. In addition, dwarfs in M 67 appear to be dynamically hotter (σ = 0.90 km s-1) than giants (σ = 0.68 km s-1).
Conclusions. We fail to detect any difference in the gravitational redshifts of giants and MS stars. This is probably because of the differential wavelength shifts produced by the different hydrodynamics of dwarf and giant atmospheres. Radial-velocity differences measured between unblended lines in averaged spectra vary with line-strength: stronger lines are more blueshifted in dwarfs than in giants, apparently removing any effect of the gravitational redshift. Synthetic high-resolution spectra are computed from three dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model atmospheres for both giants and dwarfs, and synthetic wavelength shifts obtained. In agreement with observations, 3D models predict substantially smaller wavelength-shift differences than expected from gravitational redshifts only. The procedures developed could be used to test 3D models for different classes of stars, but will ultimately require high-fidelity spectra for measurements of wavelength shifts in individual spectral lines.
Key words: stars: fundamental parameters / galaxies: star clusters: individual: M 67 / stars: late-type / stars: atmospheres / techniques: radial velocities / gravitation
Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile, during the agreement between the Observatorio Nacional at Rio de Janeiro and ESO.
Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org and also at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/526/A127
© ESO, 2011
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