Volume 513, April 2010
|Number of page(s)||16|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||29 April 2010|
The outcome of protoplanetary dust growth: pebbles, boulders, or planetesimals?*
I. Mapping the zoo of laboratory collision experiments
Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität zu Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany e-mail: email@example.com
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königsstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 16 November 2009
Context. The growth processes from protoplanetary dust to planetesimals are not fully understood. Laboratory experiments and theoretical models have shown that collisions among the dust aggregates can lead to sticking, bouncing, and fragmentation. However, no systematic study on the collisional outcome of protoplanetary dust has been performed so far, so that a physical model of the dust evolution in protoplanetary disks is still missing.
Aims. We intend to map the parameter space for the collisional interaction of arbitrarily porous dust aggregates. This parameter space encompasses the dust-aggregate masses, their porosities and the collision velocity. With such a complete mapping of the collisional outcomes of protoplanetary dust aggregates, it will be possible to follow the collisional evolution of dust in a protoplanetary disk environment.
Methods. We use literature data, perform laboratory experiments, and apply simple physical models to get a complete picture of the collisional interaction of protoplanetary dust aggregates.
Results. We found four different kinds of sticking, two kinds of bouncing, and three kinds of fragmentation as possible outcomes in collisions among protoplanetary dust aggregates. Our best collision model distinguishes between porous and compact dust. We also differentiate between collisions among similar-sized and different-sized bodies. All in all, eight combinations of porosity and mass ratio can be discerned. For each of these cases, we present a complete collision model for dust-aggregate masses between 10-12 and 102 g and collision velocities in the range of 10-4 104 cm s-1 for arbitrary porosities. This model comprises the collisional outcome, the mass(es) of the resulting aggregate(s) and their porosities.
Conclusions. We present the first complete collision model for protoplanetary dust. This collision model can be used for the determination of the dust-growth rate in protoplanetary disks.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / methods: laboratory / planets and satellites: formation
This paper is dedicated to the memory of our dear friend and colleague Frithjof Brauer (14th March 1980–19th September 2009) who developed powerful models of dust coagulation and fragmentation, and thereby studied the formation of planetesimals beyond the meter size barrier in his Ph.D. thesis. Rest in peace, Frithjof.
© ESO, 2010
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