Volume 503, Number 3, September I 2009
|Page(s)||783 - 795|
|Published online||02 July 2009|
A multiwavelength study of Swift GRB 060111B constraining the origin of its prompt optical emission*
ASDC, ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, 00044 Frascati, Italy (INAF personnel resident at ASDC) e-mail: email@example.com
2 Space Research Institude IKI, Profsoyznaya 84/32, 117910 Moscow, Russia
3 LATT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS,14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
4 CESR, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, BP 4346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
5 LAM, Observatoire Astronomique de Marseille, Pôle de l'Étoile, Site de Château-Gombert, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13, France
6 Observatoire de Haute Provence, 04870 Saint Michel l'Observatoire, France
7 Thüeringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
8 NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
9 Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent 700052, Uzbekistan
10 TÜBITAK National Observatory, Akdeniz Üniversitesi, 07058 Antalya, Turkey
11 SRI Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Crimea 98409, Ukraine
12 Crimean Laboratory of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Nauchny, Crimea 98409, Ukraine
13 IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France
14 Canada France Hawaii Telescope corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743, USA
15 Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
Accepted: 13 June 2009
Context. The detection of bright optical emission measured with good temporal resolution during the prompt phase of GRB 060111Bmakes this GRB a rare event that is especially useful for constraining theories of the prompt emission.
Aims. For this reason an extended multi-wavelength campaign was performed to further constrain the physical interpretation of the observations.
Methods. In this work, we present the results obtained from our multi-wavelength campaign, as well as from the public Swift/BAT, XRT, and UVOT data.
Results. We identified the host galaxy at mag from deep R-band exposures taken 5 months after the trigger. Its featureless spectrum and brightness, as well as the non-detection of any associated supernova 16 days after the trigger, enabled us to constrain the distance scale of GRB 060111B11 within in the most conservative case. The host galaxy spectral continuum is best fit with a redshift of , and other independent estimates converge to –2. From the analysis of the early afterglow SED, we find that non-negligible host galaxy dust extinction, in addition to the Galactic one, affects the observed flux in the optical regime. The extinction-corrected optical-to-gamma-ray SED during the prompt emission shows a flux density ratio –10-4 with spectral index , strongly suggesting a separate origin of the optical and gamma-ray components. This result is supported by the lack of correlated behavior in the prompt emission light curves observed in the two energy domains. The temporal properties of the prompt optical emission observed during GRB 060111B11 and their similarities to other rapidly-observed events favor interpretation of this optical light as radiation from the reverse shock. Observations are in good agreement with theoretical expectations for a thick shell limit in slow cooling regime. The expected peak flux is consistent with the observed one corrected for the host extinction, likely indicating that the starting time of the TAROT observations is very near to or coincident with the peak time. The estimated fireball initial Lorentz factor is –360 at –2, similar to the Lorentz factors obtained from other GRBs. GRB 060111B11 is a rare case of a GRB with both a bright, well-observed optical counterpart and a “canonical” early X-ray light curve, thus providing a good test case of the reverse shock emission mechanism in both energy ranges.
Key words: gamma rays: bursts / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal / methods: data analysis
Based on observations performed with: TAROT at the Calern observatory. The Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the CNRS of France, and the University of Hawaii. The 2.6 m Shajn telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Some of the data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
© ESO, 2009
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