Volume 497, Number 2, April II 2009
|Page(s)||595 - 609|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||18 February 2009|
On the evolution of mean motion resonances through stochastic forcing: fast and slow libration modes and the origin of HD 128311
Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 10 February 2009
Aims. We clarify the response of extrasolar planetary systems in a 2:1 mean motion commensurability with masses ranging from the super Jovian range to the terrestrial range to stochastic forcing that could result from protoplanetary disk turbulence. The behaviour of the different libration modes for a wide range of system parameters and stochastic forcing magnitudes is investigated. The growth of libration amplitudes is parameterized as a function of the relevant physical parameters. The results are applied to provide an explanation of the configuration of the HD 128311 system.
Methods. We first develop an analytic model from first principles without making the assumption that both eccentricities are small. We also perform numerical N-body simulations with additional stochastic forcing terms to represent the effects of putative disk turbulence.
Results. We isolate two distinct libration modes for the resonant angles. These react to stochastic forcing in a different way and become coupled when the libration amplitudes are large. Systems are quickly destabilized by large magnitudes of stochastic forcing but some stability is imparted should systems undergo a net orbital migration. The slow mode, which mostly corresponds to motion of the angle between the apsidal lines of the two planets, is converted to circulation more readily than the fast mode which is associated with oscillations of the semi-major axes. This mode is also vulnerable to the attainment of small eccentricities which causes oscillations between periods of libration and circulation.
Conclusions. Stochastic forcing due to disk turbulence may have played a role in shaping the configurations of observed systems in mean motion resonance. It naturally provides a mechanism for accounting for the HD 128311 system for which the fast mode librates and the slow mode is apparently near the borderline between libration and circulation.
Key words: turbulence / celestial mechanics / planetary systems: formation / planetary systems: protoplanetary disks / methods: analytical / methods: N-body simulations
© ESO, 2009
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