Letter to the Editor
Observation of a solar energetic particle event behind previous coronal mass ejection
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Laboratory, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 23 February 2009
On 2001 October 19–21 the Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) observed two gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events separated by 15 h, in association with two X1.6/2B solar flares and halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The observational data suggest that the second acceleration of ~10-100 MeV protons occurred behind the first CME and the previous CME was not an obstacle for new particles to directly reach 1 AU. The proton flux anisotropy data support the idea that the particle production significantly declined in about 10 h after the shock wave started, while the prolonged temporal profile of the solar energetic particle event was due to a slow transport of previously accelerated particles in the interplanetary space. These observations call into question the view that in all gradual events high-energy particles are continuously produced at a CME bow shock as it travels from near the Sun to beyond 1 AU.
Key words: acceleration of particles / Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs)
© ESO, 2009