This article has an erratum: [erratum]
Volume 497, Number 1, April I 2009
|Page(s)||117 - 136|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||18 February 2009|
Circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars
Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Apdo. 112, 28803 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain e-mail: email@example.com
2 Institut de Radio Astronomie Milimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire de Grenoble, 38406 St. Martin d'Hères, France
3 Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Office, Santiago, Chile
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico de Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
5 European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
6 Centre d'Étude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 04, France
Accepted: 8 December 2008
Aims. Our goal is to investigate the properties of the circumstellar disks around intermediate mass stars to determine their occurrence, lifetime and evolution.
Methods. We completed a search for circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars using the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the IRAM Plateau de Bure (PdB) interferometers. Thus far, we have observed 6 objects with 4 successful detections. The results towards 3 of these stars (R Mon, MWC 1080, MWC 137) were presented elsewhere. We present our new VLA and PdBI data for the three objects MWC 297, Z CMa, and LKHα 215. We constructed the SED from near-IR to centimeter wavelengths by adding our millimeter and centimeter data to the available data at other wavelengths, mainly Spitzer images. The entire SED was fitted using a disk+envelope model. In addition, we compiled all the disk millimeter observations in the literature and completed a statistical analysis of all the data.
Results. We show that the disk mass is usually only a small percentage (less than 10%) of the mass of the entire envelope in HBe stars. For the disks, there are large source-to-source variations. Two disks in our sample, R Mon and Z CMa, have similar sizes and masses to those found in T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. The disks around MWC 1080 and MWC 297 are, however, smaller (rout < 100 AU). We did not detect the disks towards MWC 137 and LkHα 215 at millimeter wavelengths, which limits the mass and the size of the possible circumstellar disks.
Conclusions. A comparison between our data and previous results for T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars indicates that although massive disks (~0.1 ) are found in young objects (~104 yr), the masses of the disks around Herbig Be stars are usually 5–10 times lower than those around lower mass stars. We propose that disk photoevaporation is responsible for this behavior. In Herbig Be stars, the UV radiation disperses the gas in the outer disk on a timescale of a few 105 yr. Once the outer part of the disk has vanished, the entire gaseous disk is photoevaporated on a very short timescale (~105 yr) and only a small, dusty disk consisting of large grains remains.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / circumstellar matter / planetary systems: formation / planetary systems: protoplanetary disks
© ESO, 2009
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