This article has an erratum: [https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200811150e]
Volume 494, Number 2, February I 2009
|Page(s)||527 - 537|
|Published online||27 November 2008|
Doppler factors, Lorentz factors and viewing angles for quasars, BL Lacertae objects and radio galaxies
Metsähovi Radio Observatory, TKK, Helsinki University of Technology, Metsähovintie 114, 02540 Kylmälä, Finland e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö, Finland
3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vesilinnantie 5, 20100 Turku, Finland
Accepted: 18 November 2008
Aims. We have calculated variability Doppler boosting factors, Lorentz factors, and viewing angles for a large sample of sources by using total flux density observations at 22 and 37 GHz and VLBI data.
Methods. We decomposed the flux curves into exponential flares and determined the variability brightness temperatures of the fastest flares. By assuming the same intrinsic brightness temperature for each source, we calculated the Doppler boosting factors for 87 sources. In addition we used new apparent jet speed data to calculate the Lorentz factors and viewing angles for 67 sources.
Results. We find that all quasars in our sample are Doppler-boosted and that the Doppler boosting factors of BL Lacertae objects are lower than of quasars. The new Lorentz factors are about twice as high as in earlier studies, which is mainly due to higher apparent speeds in our analyses. The jets of BL Lacertae objects are slower than of quasars. There are some extreme sources with very high derived Lorentz factors of the order of a hundred. These high Lorentz factors could be real. It is also possible that the sources exhibit such rapid flares that the fast variations have remained undetected in monitoring programmes, or else the sources have a complicated jet structure that is not amenable to our simple analysis. Almost all the sources are seen in a small viewing angle of less than 20 degrees. Our results follow the predictions of basic unification schemes for AGN.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / radio continuum: galaxies / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal / galaxies: quasars: general
© ESO, 2009
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.