Circumstellar water vapour in M-type AGB stars: constraints from HO(1–1) lines obtained with Odin*
Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Department of Astronomy, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, Sweden
3 European Southern Observatory, Casila 19001, Santiago 19, Chile
4 Swedish Space Corporation, PO Box 4207, 171 04 Solna, Sweden
5 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
6 Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Accepted: 28 November 2008
Context. A detailed radiative transfer code has been previously used to model circumstellar ortho- line emission towards six M-type asymptotic giant branch stars using Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer data. Collisional and radiative excitation, including the state, was considered.
Aims. Spectrally resolved circumstellar (110–101) lines have been obtained towards three M-type AGB stars using the Odin satellite. This provides additional strong constraints on the properties of circumstellar , in particular on the chemistry in the stellar atmosphere, and the photodissociation in the outer envelope.
Methods. Infrared Space Observatory and Odin satellite line data are used as constraints for radiative transfer models. Special consideration is taken to the spectrally resolved Odin line profiles, and the effect of excitation to the first excited vibrational states of the stretching modes ( and ) on the derived abundances is estimated. A non-local, radiative transfer code based on the accelerated lambda iteration formalism is used. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the best-fit models.
Results. The abundance estimates are in agreement with previous estimates. The inclusion of the Odin data sets stronger constraints on the size of the envelope. The (110–101) line profiles require a significant reduction in expansion velocity compared to the terminal gas expansion velocity determined in models of CO radio line emission, indicating that the emission lines probe a region where the wind is still being accelerated. Including the state significantly lowers the estimated abundances for the low-mass-loss-rate objects. This shows the importance of detailed modelling, in particular the details of the infrared spectrum in the range 3 to 6 μm, to estimate accurate circumstellar abundances.
Conclusions. Spectrally resolved circumstellar emission lines are important probes of the physics and chemistry in the inner regions of circumstellar envelopes around asymptotic giant branch stars. Predictions for emission lines in the spectral range of the upcoming Herschel/HIFI mission indicate that these observations will be very important in this context.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: evolution / stars: mass-loss
Based on observations with Odin, a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), and Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES). The Swedish Space Corporation was the industrial prime contractor and is operating Odin.
© ESO, 2009