Volume 484, Number 1, June II 2008
|Page(s)||119 - 142|
|Published online||11 March 2008|
A multi-epoch VLBI survey of the kinematics of CFJ sources*
II. Analysis of the kinematics
Present address: Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany e-mail: email@example.com
2 Landessternwarte, Königstuhl, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 ASTRON, Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, PO Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
4 Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
5 Kavli Institute of particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
6 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
7 California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
8 University of Manchester, Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories, Jodrell Bank, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9 DL, UK
Accepted: 26 February 2008
Context. This is the second in a series of papers presenting VLBI observations of the 293 Caltech-Jodrell Bank Flat-spectrum (hereafter CJF) sources and their analysis.
Aims. We obtain a consistent motion dataset large enough to allow the systematic properties of the population to be studied.
Methods. We present detailed kinematic analysis of the complete flux-density limited CJF survey. We computed 2D kinematic models based on the optimal model-fitting parameters of multi-epoch VLBA observations. This allows us to calculate not only radial, but also orthogonal motions, and thus to study curvature and acceleration. Statistical tests of the motions measured and their reliability were performed. A correlation analysis between the derived apparent motions, luminosities, spectral indices, and core dominance and the resulting consequences is described.
Results. With at least one velocity in each of the 237 sources, this sample is much larger than any available before, so it allows a meaningful statistical investigation of apparent motions and any possible correlations with other parameters in AGN jets. The main results to emerge are as follows: – In general motions are not consistent with a single uniform velocity applicable to all components along a jet. – We find a slight trend towards a positive outward acceleration and also adduce some evidence for greater acceleration in the innermost regions. – We find a lack of fast components at physical distances less than a few pc from the reference feature. – Only ~4% of the components from galaxies and <2% of those from quasars undergo large bends i.e. within of ±. – The distribution of radial velocities shows a broad distribution of velocities (apparent velocities up to 30 c). Fifteen percent of the best-sampled jet components exhibit low velocities that may need to be explained in a different manner to the fast motions. – Some negative superluminal motions are seen, and in 15 cases (6%) these are definitely significant. – We find a strong correlation between the 5 GHz luminosity and the apparent velocity. – The CJF galaxies, on average, show slower apparent jet-component velocities than the quasars. – The mean velocity in the VLBA 2 cm survey (Kellermann et al. 2004, ApJ, 609, 539) is substantially higher than in the CJF survey, the ratio could be roughly a factor of 1.5-2. This supports the observed trend toward increasing apparent velocity with increasing observing frequency.
Conclusions. This AGN survey provides the basis for any statistical analysis of jet and jet-component properties.
Key words: instrumentation: interferometers / galaxies: active / galaxies: quasars: general / galaxies: jets / galaxies: BL Lacertae objects: general
© ESO, 2008
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