Temperature structure of the intergalactic medium within seven nearby and bright clusters of galaxies observed with XMM-Newton
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma, Italy e-mail: [herve.bourdin;pasquale.mazzotta]@roma2.infn.it
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Accepted: 31 October 2007
Aims.Using a newly developed algorithm, we map, to the highest angular resolution allowed by the data, the temperature structure of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) within a nearly complete X-ray flux limited sample of galaxy clusters in the redshift range between and . Our sample contains seven bright clusters of galaxies observed with XMM-Newton: Abell 399, Abell 401, Abell 478, Abell 1795, Abell 2029, Abell 2065, Abell 2256.
Methods.We use a multi-scale spectral mapping algorithm especially designed to map spectroscopic observables from X-ray extended emission of the ICM. By means of a wavelet analysis, this algorithm couples spatially resolved spectroscopy with a structure detection approach. Derived from a former algorithm using Haar wavelets, our algorithm is now implemented with B-spline wavelets in order to perform a more regular analysis of the signal. Compared to other adaptive algorithms, our method has the advantage of analysing spatially the gas temperature structure itself, instead of being primarily driven by the geometry of gas brightness.
Results.For the four clusters in our sample that are major mergers, we find a rather complex thermal structure with strong thermal variations consistent with their dynamics. For two of them, A2065 and A2256, we perform a 3-d analysis of cold front-like features evidenced from the gas temperature and brightness maps. Furthermore, we detect a significant non-radial thermal structure outside the cool core region of the other 3 more “regular” clusters, with relative amplitudes of about about 10% and typical sizes ranging between 2 and 3 arcmin. We investigate possible implications of this thermal structure on the mass estimates, by extracting the surface brightness and temperature profiles from complementary sectors in the “regular” clusters A1795 and A2029, corresponding to hottest and coldest regions in the maps. For A2029, the temperature and surface brightness gradients seem to compensate each other, leading to a consistent mass profile. For A1795, however, the temperature structure leads to a significant mass discrepancy in the innermost cluster region. The third “regular” cluster, A478, is located in a particular sky region characterised by strong variations of neutral hydrogen column density, Nh, even on angular scales smaller than the cluster itself. For this cluster, we derive a spectroscopic Nh map and investigate the origin of Nh structure by discussing its correlation with galactic emission of dust in the infrared.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: intergalactic medium / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / techniques: image processing / techniques: spectroscopic
© ESO, 2008