Volume 478, Number 2, February I 2008
|Page(s)||299 - 310|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||20 November 2007|
The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS)*
The dependence of clustering on galaxy stellar mass at z ~ 1
INAF-IASF, via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
2 Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (LC), Italy
4 Max Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, 85741 Garching, Germany
5 European Southern Observatory, 85741 Garching, Germany
6 Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 6110 CNRS-Université de Provence, BP 8, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12, France
7 Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University, ul Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków, Poland
8 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani, 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
9 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, Milan, Italy
10 Centre de Physique Théorique, UMR 6207 CNRS-Université de Provence, 13288 Marseille, France
11 Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98bis Bvd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France
12 Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
13 Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Toulouse/Tarbes (UMR5572), CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier – Toulouse III, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
14 IRA-INAF – via Gobetti,101, 40129, Bologna, Italy
15 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
16 Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia, via Ranzani, 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
17 Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza delle Scienze, 3, 20126 Milano, Italy
18 School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG72RD, UK
19 Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
20 Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822
21 Integral Science Data Centre, Ch. d'Écogia 16, 1290 Versoix
22 Geneva Observatory, Ch. des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
23 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Accepted: 14 November 2007
Aims.We present a measurement of the dependence of galaxy clustering on galaxy stellar mass at redshift , based on the first-epoch data from the VVDS-Deep survey.
Methods.Concentrating on the redshift interval , we measured the projected correlation function, , within mass-selected sub-samples covering the range ~109 and ~. We explored and quantify in detail the observational selection biases due to the flux-limited nature of the survey, both from the data themselves and with a suite of realistic mock samples constructed by coupling the Millennium Simulation to semi-analytic models. We identify the range of masses within which our main conclusions are robust against these effects. Serious incompleteness in mass is present below , with about two thirds of the galaxies in the range that are lost due to their low luminosity and high mass-to-light ratio. However, the sample is expected to be 100% complete in mass above .
Results.We present the first direct evidence for a dependence of clustering on the galaxy stellar mass at a redshift as high as . We quantify this by fitting the projected function with a power-law model. The clustering length increases from Mpc for galaxies with mass to Mpc when only the most massive () are considered. At the same time, we observe a significant increase in the slope, which over the same range of masses, changes from to . Comparison to the SDSS measurements at shows that the evolution of is significant for samples of galaxies with , while it is negligible for more massive objects. Considering the growth of structure, this implies that the linear bias bL of the most massive galaxies evolves more rapidly between these two cosmic epochs. We quantify this effect by computing the value of bL from the SDSS and VVDS clustering amplitudes and find that bL decreases from at to at , for the most massive galaxies, while it remains virtually constant () for the remaining population. Qualitatively, this is the kind of scenario expected for the clustering of dark-matter halos as a function of their total mass and redshift. Our result therefore seems to indicate that galaxies with the highest stellar mass today were originally central objects of the most massive dark-matter halos at earlier times, whose distribution was strongly biased with respect to the overall mass density field.
Key words: cosmology: observations / galaxies: evolution / surveys / cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe
Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007(A), and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the CNRS of France, CNRC in Canada and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.
© ESO, 2008
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