Resolving the third dimension in peculiar pulsating stellar atmospheres
Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Austria
2 Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya 48, 119017 Moscow, Russia e-mail: email@example.com
3 Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University Box 515, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden
4 Tavrian National University, Yaltinskaya 4, 330000 Simferopol, Ukraine
Accepted: 12 June 2007
Aims.We present detailed analysis of the vertical pulsation mode cross-section in ten rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars based on spectroscopic time-series observations. The aim of this analysis is to derive from observations a complete picture of how the amplitude and phase of magnetoacoustic waves depend on depth.
Methods.We use the unique properties of roAp stars, in particular chemical stratification, to resolve the vertical structure of p-modes. Our approach consists of characterising pulsational behaviour of a carefully chosen, but extensive sample of spectral lines. We analyse the resulting amplitude-phase diagrams and interpret observations in terms of pulsation wave propagation.
Results.We find common features in the pulsational behaviour of roAp stars. Within a sample of representative elements the lowest amplitudes are detected for Eu ii (and Fe in 33 Lib and in HD 19918), then pulsations go through the layers where Hα core, Nd, and Pr lines are formed. There RV amplitude reaches its maximum, and after that decreases in most stars. The maximum RV of the second REE ions is always delayed relative to the first ions. The largest phase shifts are detected in Tb iii and Th iii lines. Pulsational variability of the Th iii lines is detected here for the first time. The Y ii lines deviate from this picture, showing even lower amplitudes than Eu ii lines but half a period phase shift relative to other weakly pulsating lines. We measured an extra broadening, equivalent to a macroturbulent velocity from 4 to 11-12 km s-1 (where maximum values are observed for Tb iii and Th iii lines), for pulsating REE lines. The surface magnetic field strength is derived for the first time for three roAp stars: HD 9289 (2 kG), HD 12932 (1.7 kG), and HD 19918 (1.6 kG).
Conclusions. The roAp stars exhibit similarity in the depth-dependence of pulsation phase and amplitude, indicating similar chemical stratification and comparable vertical mode cross-sections. In general, pulsations waves are represented by a superposition of the running and standing wave components. In the atmospheres of roAp stars with the pulsation frequency below the acoustic cut-off frequency, pulsations have a standing-wave character in the deeper layers and behave like a running wave in the outer layers. Cooler roAp stars develop a running wave higher in the atmosphere. In stars with pulsation frequency close to the acoustic cut-off one, pulsation waves have a running character starting from deep layers. The transition from standing to running wave is accompanied by an increase in the turbulent broadening of spectral lines.
Key words: stars: atmospheres / stars: chemically peculiar / stars: magnetic fields / stars: oscillations
Based on observations made with the SAO 6-m telescope, with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the ESO VLT (DDT programme 274.D-5011 and programme 072.D-0138, retrieved through the ESO archive).
© ESO, 2007