Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Observatoire Astronomique, rue de l'Université 11, 67000 Strasbourg, France e-mail: email@example.com
3 Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, c/Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;email@example.com
4 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – IAG, Departamento de Astronomia, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo, Brazil e-mail: [rlopes;janot]@astro.iag.usp.br
5 Dpto. de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy e-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 10 July 2007
Context.LS 5039 has been observed with several X-ray instruments so far showing quite steady emission in the long term and no signatures of accretion disk. The source also presents X-ray variability at orbital timescales in flux and photon index. The system harbors an O-type main sequence star with moderate mass-loss. At present, the link between the X-rays and the stellar wind is unclear.
Aims.We study the X-ray fluxes, spectra, and absorption properties of LS 5039 at apastron and periastron passages during an epoch of enhanced stellar mass-loss, and the long term evolution of the latter in connection with the X-ray fluxes.
Methods.New XMM-Newton observations were performed around periastron and apastron passages in September 2005, when the stellar wind activity was apparently higher. April 2005 Chandra observations on LS 5039 were revisited. Moreover, a compilation of Hα EW data obtained since 1992, from which the stellar mass-loss evolution can be approximately inferred, was carried out.
Results.XMM-Newton observations show higher and harder emission around apastron than around periastron. No signatures of thermal emission or a reflection iron line indicating the presence of an accretion disk are found in the spectrum, and the hydrogen column density (NH) is compatible with being the same in both observations and consistent with the interstellar value. 2005 Chandra observations show a hard X-ray spectrum, and possibly high fluxes, although pileup effects preclude conclusive results from being obtained. The Hα EW shows yearly variations of ∼10%, and does not seem to be correlated with X-ray fluxes obtained at similar phases, unlike what is expected in the wind accretion scenario.
Conclusions.2005 XMM-Newton and Chandra observations are consistent with 2003 RXTE/PCA results, namely moderate flux and spectral variability at different orbital phases. The constancy of the NH seems to imply that either the X-ray emitter is located at 1012 cm from the compact object, or the density in the system is 3 to 27 times smaller than that predicted by a spherical symmetric wind model. We suggest that the multiwavelength non-thermal emission of LS 5039 is related to the observed extended radio jets and is unlikely to be produced inside the binary system.
Key words: X-rays: binaries / stars: individual: LS 5039 / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
The Hα results presented here are based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program IDs 67.D-0229(A), 69.D-0628(A) and 075.D-0591(A); the Observatoire de Haute-Provence; the Observatório do Pico dos Dias / LNA, Brazil; the G. D. Cassini telescope operated at the Loiano Observatory by the Osservatorio Astronómico di Bologna; and the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (those data were taken using ALFOSC, which is owned by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) and operated at the Nordic Optical Telescope under agreement between IAA and the NBIfAFG of the Astronomical Observatory of Copenhagen).
© ESO, 2007