The gas drag in a circular binary system
Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Munich, Germany
3 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
Accepted: 27 March 2007
We investigate the motion of massless particles orbiting the primary star in a close circular binary system with particular focus on the gas drag effects. These are the first calculations with particles ranging in size from 1 m to 10 km, which account for the presence of a tidally perturbed gaseous disk. We have found numerically that the radial mass transport by the tidal waves plays a crucial role in the orbital evolution of particles. In the outer region of the gaseous disk, where its perturbation is strongest, the migration rate of a particle for all considered sizes is enhanced by a factor of 3 with respect to the axisymmetric disk in radial equilibrium. Similar enhancement is observed in the damping rate of inclinations. We present a simple analytical argument proving that the migration rate of a particle in such a disk is enhanced due to the enhanced mass flux of gas colliding with the particle. Thus the enhancement factor does not depend on the sign of the radial gas velocity, and the migration is always directed inward. Within the framework of the perturbation theory, we derive more general, approximate formulae for short-term variations of the particle semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination in a disk out of radial equilibrium. The basic version of the formulae applies to the axisymmetric disk, but we present how to account for departures from axial symmetry by introducing effective components of the gas velocity. Comparison with numerical results proves that our formulae are correct within several percent. We have also found in numerical simulations that the tidal waves introduce coherence in periastron longitude and eccentricity for particles on neighboring orbits. The degree of the coherence depends on the particle size and on the distance from the primary star, being most prominent for particles with 10 m radius. The results are important mainly in the context of planetesimal formation and, to a lesser degree, during the early planetesimal accretion stage.
Key words: binaries: close / waves / planetary systems: formation / celestial mechanics / accretion, accretion disks / methods: N-body simulations
© ESO, 2007