X-rays from protostellar jets: emission from continuous flows
Dip. Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Sez. Astronomia, Università di Palermo, P.zza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.zza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
3 Astrophysics Div. - Research and Science Support Dept. of ESA, ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
4 Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
5 Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Accepted: 17 October 2006
Context.Recently X-ray emission from protostellar jets has been detected with both XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, but the physical mechanism which can give rise to this emission is still unclear.
Aims.We performed an extensive exploration of the parameter space for the main parameters influencing the jet/ambient medium interaction. Aims include: 1) to constrain the jet/ambient medium interaction regimes leading to the X-ray emission observed in Herbig-Haro objects in terms of the emission by a shock forming at the interaction front between a continuous supersonic jet and the surrounding medium; 2) to derive detailed predictions to be compared with optical and X-ray observations of protostellar jets; 3) to get insight into the protostellar jet's physical conditions.
Methods.We performed a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations, in cylindrical coordinates, modeling supersonic jets ramming into a uniform ambient medium. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses.
Results.Our model explains the observed X-ray emission from protostellar jets in a natural way. In particular, we find that a protostellar jet that is less dense than the ambient medium well reproduces the observations of the nearest Herbig-Haro object, HH 154, and allows us to make detailed predictions of a possible X-ray source proper motion ( km s-1) detectable with Chandra. Furthermore, our results suggest that the simulated protostellar jets which best reproduce the X-rays observations cannot drive molecular outflows.
Key words: shock waves / ISM: Herbig-Haro objects / ISM: jets and outflows / X-rays: ISM
© ESO, 2007