Properties of planets in binary systems*
The role of binary separation
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy e-mail: email@example.com
2 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova, Italy
Accepted: 1 October 2006
Aims.The statistical properties of planets in binaries were investigated. Any difference to planets orbiting single stars can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. As planets were found around components of binaries with very different separation and mass ratio, it is particularly important to study the characteristics of planets as a function of the effective gravitational influence of the companion.
Methods.A compilation of planets in binary systems was made; a search for companions orbiting stars recently shown to host planets was performed, resulting in the addition of two further binary planet hosts (HD 20782 and HD 109749). The probable original properties of the three binary planet hosts with white dwarfs companions were also investigated. Using this updated sample of planets in binaries we performed a statistical analysis of the distributions of planet mass, period, and eccentricity, fraction of multiplanet systems, and stellar metallicity for planets orbiting components of tight and wide binaries and single stars.
Results.The only highly significant difference revealed by our analysis concerns the mass distribution of short-period planets. Massive planets in short period orbits are found in most cases around the components of rather tight binaries. The properties of exoplanets orbiting the components of wide binaries are compatible with those of planets orbiting single stars, except for a possible greater abundance of high-eccentricity planets. The previously suggested lack of massive planets with days in binaries is not confirmed.
Conclusions.We conclude that the presence of a stellar companion with separation smaller than 100–300 AU is able to modify the formation and/or migration and/or the dynamical evolution history of giant planets while wide companions play a more limited role.
Key words: stars: planetary systems / stars: binaries: visual / stars: general / stars: individual: HD 20782, HD 109749, GL 86
© ESO, 2007