High-resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy of PG 1159-035 with HST and FUSE*
Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Astrophysics Group T-6, MS B227, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
Accepted: 2 October 2006
Context.PG 1159-035 is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class which consists of extremely hot hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs. It is also the prototype of the GW Vir variables, which are non-radial g-mode pulsators. The study of PG 1159 stars reveals insight into stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis during AGB and post-AGB phases.
Aims.We perform a quantitative spectral analysis of PG 1159-035 focusing on the abundance determination of trace elements.
Methods.We have taken high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of PG 1159-035 with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. They are analysed with non-LTE line blanketed model atmospheres.
Results.We confirm the high effective temperature with high precision ( K) and the surface gravity of log 7. For the first time we assess the abundances of silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iron. Silicon is about solar. For phosphorus we find an upper limit of solar abundance. A surprisingly strong depletion of sulfur (2% solar) is discovered. Iron is not detected, suggesting an upper limit of 30% solar. This coincides with the Fe deficiency found in other PG 1159 stars. We redetermine the nitrogen abundance and find it to be lower by one dex compared to previous analyses.
Conclusions.The sulfur depletion is in contradiction with current models of AGB star intershell nucleosynthesis. The iron deficiency confirms similar results for other PG 1159 stars and is explained by the conversion of iron into heavier elements by n-capture in the s-processing environment of the precursor AGB star. However, the extent of the iron depletion is stronger than predicted by evolutionary models. The relatively low nitrogen abundance compared to other pulsating PG 1159 stars weakens the role of nitrogen as a distinctive feature of pulsators and non-pulsators in the GW Vir instability strip.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: atmospheres / stars: evolution / stars: individual: PG 1159-035 / stars: AGB and post-AGB
Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.
© ESO, 2007