Radiative diffusion in stellar atmospheres: diffusion velocities
LUTH (Observatoire de Paris – CNRS), Observatoire de Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France e-mail: email@example.com
2 Institut für Astronomie (IfA), Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Austria e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 2 March 2006
Aims.The present paper addresses some of the problems in the buildup of element stratification in stellar magnetic atmospheres due to microscopic diffusion, in particular the redistribution of momentum among the various ionisation stages of a given element and the calculation of diffusion velocities in the presence of inclined magnetic fields.
Methods.We have considerably modified and extended our CARAT code to provide radiative accelerations, not only from bound-bound but also from bound-free transitions. In addition, our code now computes ionisation and recombination rates, both radiative and collisional. These rates are used in calculating the redistribution of momentum among the various ionisation stages of the chemical elements. A careful comparison shows that the two different theoretical approaches to redistribution that are presently available lead to widely discrepant results for some chemical elements, especially in the magnetic case. In the absence of a fully satisfactory theory of redistribution, we propose to use the geometrical mean of the radiative accelerations from both methods.
Results.Diffusion velocities have been calculated for 28 chemical elements in a , stellar magnetic atmosphere with solar abundances. Velocities and resulting element fluxes in magnetic fields are discussed; rates of abundance changes are analysed for systematic trends with field strength and field direction. Special consideration is given to the Si case and our results are confronted in detail with well-known results derived more than two decades ago.
Key words: diffusion / stars: abundances / stars: chemically peculiar / stars: magnetic fields
© ESO, 2006