Volume 445, Number 1, January I 2006
|Page(s)||273 - 289|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||13 December 2005|
Exploring the relativistic regime with Newtonian hydrodynamics: an improved effective gravitational potential for supernova simulations
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, 85741 Garching, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 4 July 2005
We investigate the possibility approximating relativistic effects in hydrodynamical simulations of stellar core collapse and post-bounce evolution by using a modified gravitational potential in an otherwise standard Newtonian hydrodynamic code. Different modifications of a previously introduced effective relativistic potential are discussed. Corresponding hydrostatic solutions are compared with solutions of the TOV equations, and hydrodynamic simulations with two different codes are compared with fully relativistic results. One code is applied for one- and two-dimensional calculations with a simple equation of state, and employs either the modified effective relativistic potential in a Newtonian framework or solves the general relativistic field equations under the assumption of the conformal flatness condition (CFC) for the three-metric. The second code allows for full-scale supernova runs including a microphysical equation of state and neutrino transport based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation and its moments equations. We present prescriptions for the effective relativistic potential for self-gravitating fluids to be used in Newtonian codes, which produce excellent agreement with fully relativistic solutions in spherical symmetry, leading to significant improvements compared to previously published approximations. Moreover, they also approximate qualitatively well relativistic solutions for models with rotation.
Key words: gravitation / hydrodynamics / methods: numerical / relativity / stars: supernovae: general
© ESO, 2005
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