Volume 444, Number 1, December II 2005
|Page(s)||119 - 132|
|Published online||21 November 2005|
X-ray obscuration and obscured AGN in the local universe
XMM-Newton Science Operations Center, European Space Astronomy Center, ESA, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, Spain e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Università degli Studi “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146, Roma, Italy
Accepted: 4 August 2005
We discuss the X-ray properties of 49 local () Seyfert 2 galaxies with HST/WFC2 high-resolution optical coverage. It includes the results of 26 still unpublished Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, which yield 25 (22) new X-ray detections in the 0.5–2 keV (2–10 keV) energy band. Our sample covers a range in the 2–10 keV observed flux, F2-10, from to erg cm-2 s-1. The percentage of objects that are likely obscured by Compton-thick matter (column density, cm-2) is 50%, and reaches 80% for . Hence, Kα fluorescent iron lines with large Equivalent Width ( keV) are common in our sample (6 new detections at a confidence level ≥2σ). They are explained as due to reflection off the illuminated side of optically thick material. We confirm a correlation between the presence of a ~100-pc scale nuclear dust in the WFC2 images and Compton-thin obscuration. We interpret this correlation as due to the large covering fraction of gas associated with the dust lanes. The X-ray spectra of highly obscured AGN invariably present a prominent soft excess emission above the extrapolation of the hard X-ray component. This soft component can account for a very large fraction of the overall X-ray energy budget. As this component is generally unobscured – and therefore likely produced in extended gas structures – it may lead to a severe underestimation of the nuclear obscuration in absorbed AGN, if standard X-ray colors are used to classify them. As a by-product of our study, we report the discovery of a soft X-ray, luminous (7 erg s-1) halo embedding the interacting galaxy pair Mkn 266.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: nucleus / galaxies: Seyfert / X-ray: galaxies
© ESO, 2005
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