Volume 441, Number 1, October I 2005
|Page(s)||159 - 170|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||13 September 2005|
A combined optical/infrared spectral diagnostic analysis of the HH1 jet
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio Catone, Italy e-mail: email@example.com
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
3 Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
4 Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universitá degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze, Italy
5 School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 5 Merrion Square, Dublin 2, Ireland
Accepted: 26 May 2005
Complete flux-calibrated spectra covering the spectral range from 6000 Å to 2.5 μm have been obtained along the HH1 jet and analysed in order to explore the potential of a combined optical/near-IR diagnostic applied to jets from young stellar objects. The main physical parameters (visual extinction, electron temperature and density, ionization fraction and total density) have been derived along the jet using various diagnostic line ratios. This multi-line analysis shows, in each spatially unresolved knot, the presence of zones at different excitation conditions, as expected from the cooling layers behind a shock front. In particular, a density stratification in the jet is evident from ratios of various lines of different critical density. We measure electron densities in the range 6 102–3 103 cm-3 with the  optical doublet lines, 4 103–104 cm-3 with the near-IR  lines, and 105–106 cm-3 with optical  and CaII lines. The electron temperature also shows variations, with values between 8000–11 000 K derived from optical/near-IR  lines and 11 000–20 000 K from a combined diagnostic employing optical  and  lines. Thus  lines originate in a cooling layer located at larger distances from the shock front than that generating the optical lines, where the compression is higher and the temperature is declining. The derived parameters were used to measure the mass flux along the jet, adopting different procedures, the advantages and limitations of which are discussed. The  1.64 μm line luminosity turns out to be more suitable to measure than the optical lines, since it samples a fraction of the total mass flowing through a knot larger than the  or  lines. is high in the initial part of the flow (~2.2 10 yr-1) but decreases by about an order of magnitude further out. Conversely, the mass flux associated with the warm molecular material is low, ~ 10 yr-1, and does not show appreciable variations along the jet. We suggest that part of the mass flux in the external regions is not revealed in optical and IR lines because it is associated with a colder atomic component, which may be traced by the far-IR 63 μm line. Finally, we find that the gas-phase abundance of refractory species, such as Fe, C, Ca, and Ni, is lower than the solar value, with the lowest values (between 10 and 30% of solar) derived in the inner and densest regions. This suggests a significant fraction of dust grains may still be present in the jet beam, imposing constraints on the efficiency of grain destruction by multiple low-velocity shock events.
Key words: stars: circumstellar matter / infrared: ISM / ISM: Herbig-Haro objects / ISM: jets and outflows
© ESO, 2005
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