Volume 436, Number 2, June III 2005
|569 - 584
|Interstellar and circumstellar matter
|30 May 2005
New results on the massive star-forming region S106 by BEAR spectro-imagery
Centre d'Étude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France e-mail: Christine.Joblin@cesr.fr
2 Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS et Université P. & M. Curie, 98 bis Bd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France e-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 20 January 2005
As a typical example of interaction of a massive star with its parent cloud, the close environment of S106 IR in the star-forming region S106 was observed at high spectral resolution (~16 km s-1). Integral field spectroscopy with BEAR, an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), on a field of ~40´´in diameter, in the H2 1–0 S(1), 2–1 S(1), Brγ, and  lines. From the data several maps were obtained: intensity, velocity and linewidth in the Brγ and the H2 1–0 S(1) line, 1–0 S(1)/2–1 S(1) line ratio, and continuum emission at 2.1 μm. From the latter, about twenty low-mass stars were detected with photometry in this band, and an estimate of their mass was made leading to the conclusion that S106 is a site of formation of mainly sub-solar mass stars. The intensity structure of the excited molecular gas H2 was found to be clumpy while the velocity is almost uniformely at 1.5 km s-1 except to the south where the velocity reaches up to 15 km s-1 in a zone limited by the long edge of a rectangular hole in the emission. The H2 line ratio map with values from 1 to 9 implies that UV-absorption and shocks are participating in the excitation process. A PDR model with a temperature of 3700 K for S106 IR was used to retrieve the H2 gas density and temperature. The density was found to vary between 1 and 3.5 105 cm-3 with corresponding temperatures between 660 and 1240 K. The study of the linewidth distribution indicates for most of the gas a supersonic turbulence with a mean contribution to the observed profiles of ≥6 km s-1. Turbulence is likely to be responsible for the observed clumpy structure of the excited gas. Point-like spots with a linewidth as high as 30 km s-1 in one position are detected, which may be vortices in the molecular gas. The region probed by Brγ shows a broad range of velocity, from -45 to +80 km s-1, organized in velocity structures that correspond to two pairs of large, bipolar outflows originating from the massive source, not directed along the axis of the region. Emission lines of and  are detected in a bright area to the southwest of S106 IR, with point-like structures suggesting photoevaporating clumps. From the velocity data, a 3-D model of the environment of S106 IR is proposed. S106 is an example of an evolved region seen face-on. The central source located at the edge of its parent molecular cloud has carved an expanding cylinder of turbulent, atomic gas of 0.1 pc in radius. This massive object was formed by an accretion disk process. The disk is still present and the bipolar outflows are remnants of the massive star activity. A time scale of 1400 yr is estimated for the most recent event. A thin and quiescent clumpy layer of warm H2 marks the transition of the region to the molecular cloud. From the data, there are locally no signs of ongoing star formation.
Key words: stars: formation / ISM: individual objects: Sh 2-106 / instrumentation: interferometers / HII regions / astrochemistry
© ESO, 2005
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