On the correlated spectral and timing properties of 4U 1636–53: An atoll source at high accretion rates
Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek", University of Amsterdam and Center for High-Energy Astrophysics, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands e-mail: email@example.com
2 SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands e-mail: M.Mendez@sron.nl
Corresponding author: T. Di Salvo, firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 27 March 2003
We analyze ~600 ks data from the X-ray observatory Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of the neutron star low mass X-ray binary and atoll source 4U 1636–53. These observations span almost three years, from April 1996 to February 1999. The color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams show significant secular shifts of the atoll track, similar to what is observed for some Z sources. These are most evident in the hardness-intensity diagram, where shifts in intensity up to ~20% are observed. We find that the intensity shifts in the hardness-intensity diagram are responsible for the parallel tracks observed in the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillations frequency vs. intensity diagram. While the parallel tracks in the frequency vs. color plane partially overlap, systematic long term shifts are still evident. We also study the broad band power spectra of 4U 1636–53 as a function of the source position Sa along the track in the color-color diagram. These power spectra are all characteristic of the lower and upper banana state in atoll sources, showing very low frequency noise, band limited noise, and sometimes one or two kHz QPOs. We find that the very low frequency noise in some intervals is not well described by a power law because of an excess of power between 20 and 30 mHz, which can be fitted by a Lorentzian. Also, the characteristic frequency of the band limited noise shows a trend to decrease with increasing Sa at high Sa values.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / stars: individual: 4U 1636–53 / stars: neutron / X-rays: stars / X-rays: general
© ESO, 2003