The temperature structure of dusty planetary nebulae
DAEC, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France e-mail: email@example.com
2 N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Rabiańska 8, 87-100 Toruń, Poland e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Corresponding author: G. Stasińska, email@example.com
Accepted: 2 October 2001
We have analyzed the effects of photoelectric heating by dust grains in photoionization models of planetary nebulae. We have shown that this process is particularly important if planetary nebulae contain a population of small grains. The presence of such grains would solve a number of problems that have found no satisfactory solution so far: i) the thermal energy deficit in some objects inferred from tailored photoionization modelling; ii) the large negative temperature gradients inferred directly from spatially resolved observations and indirectly from integrated spectra in some planetary nebulae; iii) the fact that the temperatures derived from the Balmer jump are smaller than those derived from [O iii] λ4363/5007; iv) the fact that the observed intensities of [O i] λ6300 are often larger than predicted by photoionization models. In the presence of moderate density inhomogeneities, such as those inferred from high resolution images of planetary nebulae, photoelectric heating would boost the temperature of the tenuous component, which would then better confine the clumps. The temperature structure of such dusty and filamentary nebulae would solve the long-standing problem of temperature fluctuations posed by Peimbert ([CITE]).
Key words: ISM: abundances / planetary nebulae: general / infrared: general / radiative transfer
© ESO, 2001