EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 379, Number 1, November III 2001
Page(s) 162 - 184
Section Formation, structure and evolution of stars
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20011298
Published online 15 November 2001

A&A 379, 162-184 (2001)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011298

Binary systems with post-T Tauri secondaries

M. Gerbaldi1, 2, R. Faraggiana3 and N. Balin4

1  Institut d'Astrophysique, 98 bis Bd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France
2  Université de Paris Sud-XI, France
3  Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy
    e-mail: faraggiana@ts.astro.it
4  Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, Département de Mathématiques, 135 Av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex, France

(Received 5 July 2000 / Accepted 2 August 2001)

The identification of post-T Tauri (pTT) stars selected through spectroscopic criteria by Pallavicini et al. (1992) and by Martín et al. (1992) among the candidates belonging to visual binary systems is revisited in the present paper by studying their position in the HR diagram. These stars belong to the so-called Lindroos binary sample (Lindroos 1985), i.e. to systems with early-type primaries and late-type companions. If these binaries are physical and not simply optical pairs, similar ages must be found for the early-type primary and the late-type component of each system. The ages of these systems have been derived by Lindroos in 1986, by using calibrations of the uvby ${\beta} $ indices. In this paper, we revisit these ages through the position of these stars among new evolutionary tracks in the HR diagram for pre-and post-main sequence stars. We derive new estimations of the ages of each system component, as well as their masses, using parallaxes of the early-type component derived from Hipparcos data and by forcing the late-type companion to be at the same distance. $T\rm _{eff}$ and $\log g$ of the early-type components have been computed using the calibrations of two independent photometric systems: the uvby ${\beta} $ photometry and the Geneva system. The $T\rm _{eff}$ of the late-type stars have been determined by using various calibrations of several photometric systems: uvby ${\beta} $, UBV and VRI, in order to determine the uncertainties and systematic errors on these parameters and consequently on the ages. Differences in the ages and masses obtained by using various sources of recent evolutionary models are considered and discussed. The consistency of the age of the late type component with that of its early type primary is examined; the validity of this criterion for a selection of physical pairs is discussed. The accuracy of the observational and theoretical data are not sufficient to assign stringent values to the age for several of the examined systems. Nevertheless, in spite of the large error bars, we have established that we could select a number of systems which, according to their position in the HR diagram, may be physically associated. The selection of possible physically bounded systems obtained with the present approach and that made by Pallavicini et al. (1992) or Martín et al. (1992) on the basis of spectroscopic criteria are not always coincident. Spectroscopic criteria, for example the presence of a strong Li feature, are more stringent conditions than that of coherent ages of primaries and secondaries; however the Li I 6708 doublet is expected to fade in the latest stages of the pre-main sequence life of a star, so that the "oldest" pTTs may not be detected by spectroscopy only. The different results so obtained are discussed for each system and we conclude that the present approach may be used as a powerful criterion to select new pTT candidates in visual binaries to be observed and analyzed with high resolution spectrographs and to select candidates that have almost reached the main sequence.

Key words: binaries: visual -- stars: evolution -- stars: fundamental parameters (temperature, luminosity, age, mass) -- Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram -- stars: pre-main sequence.

Offprint request: M. Gerbaldi, gerbaldi@iap.fr

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