EDP Sciences
Free Access
Volume 375, Number 3, September 2001
Page(s) 950 - 962
Section Formation, structure and evolution of stars
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20010878
Published online 15 September 2001

A&A 375, 950-962 (2001)
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010878

Processing of silicate dust grains in Herbig Ae/Be systems

J. Bouwman1, G. Meeus2, A. de Koter1, S. Hony1, C. Dominik1 and L. B. F. M. Waters1, 2

1  Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek" , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2  Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 B, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium

(Received 2 February 2001 / Accepted 15 June 2001 )

We have analysed the 10 $\mu$m spectral region of a sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAEBE) stars. The spectra are dominated by a broad emission feature caused by warm amorphous silicates, and by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In HD 163296 we find aliphatic carbonaceous dust, the first detection of this material in a HAEBE star. The silicate band shows a large variation in shape, due to variable contributions of three components: (i) a broad shoulder at 8.6 $\mu$m; (ii) a broad maximum at 9.8 $\mu$m; and (iii) a narrow feature with a broad underlying continuum at 11.3 $\mu$m. From detailed modeling these features can be identified with silica (SiO2), sub-micrometer sized amorphous olivine grains and micrometer sized amorphous olivine grains in combination with forsterite (Mg2SiO4), respectively. Typical mass fractions are 5 to 10 per cent of crystalline over amorphous olivine, and a few per cent of silica compared to the olivines. The detection of silica in emission implies that this material is heated by thermal contact with other solids that have a high absorptivity at optical to near-IR wavelengths. The observed change in peak position of the silicate band in HAEBE stars from 9.7 $\mu$m to 11.3 $\mu$m is dominated by an increase in average grain size, while changes in composition play only a minor rôle. The HAEBE stars, $\beta$ Pic and the solar system comet Halley form a sequence of increasing crystallinity. We find that the abundance of SiO2 tends to increase with increasing crystallinity. This is consistent with the compositional changes expected from thermal annealing of amorphous grains in the inner regions of the disk. We confirm earlier studies that the timescale for crystallisation of silicates in disks is longer than that of coagulation. Our results indicate that the processes that governed grain processing in the proto-solar nebula, are also at work in HAEBE stars.

Key words: circumstellar matter -- stars: formation -- stars: pre-main-sequence

Offprint request: J. Bouwman, jeroenb@astro.uva.nl

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© ESO 2001

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