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Fig. 1.


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Solar butterfly diagram from observations secured with the Wilcox Solar Observatory. Top three rows: the following: ⟨Bϕϕ, with positive polarity in white and negative polarity in black (top panel); ⟨Brϕ with positive polarity in red and negative polarity in blue (second panel); and the chromospheric S-index values, where the yellow vertical lines indicate the S-index activity maximum (third panel). Lower three panels: are the same, but with the magnetic maps reduced to a lower resolution matching that achievable for 61 Cygni A and ϵ Eridani.

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