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Fig. E.1.


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Evolution (from left to right) during the emergence phase of the average active region for the ensemble average over all 182 ARs in the sample. Each time step is an average over six hours, centered on the labeled time. The flows are smoothed with a Gaussian of σ = 0.8°. Red (blue) indicates positive (negative) radial magnetic field, saturated at ±300 Gauss.

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