Cosmic SFR density (top panel) and stellar density (bottom panel) as a function of redshift in NEWHORIZON (solid black or red lines) compared to observations (Behroozi et al. 2013, B13; Madau & Dickinson 2014; Novak et al. 2017; Driver et al. 2018) as indicated in the panels. All observational quantities are shown for a Chabrier (2005) IMF except for the dashed blue line, which indicates the Madau & Dickinson (2014) fit for a Salpeter IMF as originally assumed in their analysis. For the stellar density, the reconstructed result from the SFR density for NEWHORIZON (magenta line) and for the fit from B13 (grey lines) using two different return fractions R are also shown. The red coloured lines indicate the cosmic SFR densities of the different galaxy stellar mass bins as indicated in the panel in log M⊙ units. The large error bar in black in the SFR density panel corresponds to the estimate of the cosmic variance (see text for details). The cosmic SFR in NEWHORIZON shows the qualitative expected trend over time; however, there is a systematic offset by a factor 1.5 − 2 with respect to the observational data assuming standard Chabrier-like IMF. The cosmic stellar density in NEWHORIZON is broad agreement with the data with a slight overestimate at low redshift, although there is an important uncertainty on the simulated cosmic SFR (and thus stellar density) due to the large cosmic variance associated with the simulated volume.
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